Retrofit suggestions from resilient design perspective in educational buildings lighting systems


  • Kasım Çelik image/svg+xml Cukurova University

    Kasım Çelik is an architect graduated from Department of Architecture at Çukurova University. He received his M.Sc. degree at Çukurova University and Ph.D. degree at Yıldız Technical University. He is currently working at Çukurova University, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture and his research areas focus on architectural lighting, building physics, and building elements.



retrofit, resilient lighting design, visual comfort, school lighting design, educational buildings


Educational buildings need to be properly built and renovated because of the number of users served, the rate of usage, the potential for energy savings, and their number in public buildings. Physically, educational buildings that do not meet the essential comfort conditions cause more energy consumption, have a negative effect on academic performance of students and also cause disruptions in educational program applications. According to 2021 data, there are approximately 67,000 school buildings in Turkey. A major portion of these buildings were constructed before 2000 and are now nearing the end of their economic life. It is essential to renew the insufficient buildings make them suitable for the conditions of the age. In this context, resilient systems that continue to function in a variety of negative conditions while maintaining comfort conditions become a priority in the design of the created environment. The lighting arrangements of educational buildings that are directly connected to visual comfort, academic performance, and energy consumption are discussed in this study. Within the framework of resilient design, certain suggestions have been developed in light of the current lighting standards in effect regarding the processes to be followed before the retrofit works to be performed in the lighting arrangements of the school buildings. These suggestions were discussed in three categories as short-, medium-, and long-term periods, taking into consideration the duration of the improvement processes and without interfering with the existing activities during the school education period and it was aimed to create a guide for designers and practitioners with the improvement systematics to be made in these periods. In order to test these suggestions, a classroom from the Ministry of National Education's type school projects is used as an example. The existing situation of the natural and artificial lighting system of this classroom and short-, medium- and long-term improvement suggestions were estimated through the Dialux Evo program. According to the findings, the recommended improvements enhanced visual comfort criteria and resulted in a considerable reduction in energy consumption. With the help of the improvement calendar, it is possible to modify the lighting systems of existing school buildings and increase visual performance.


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How to Cite

Çelik, K. (2022). Retrofit suggestions from resilient design perspective in educational buildings lighting systems. Journal of Design for Resilience in Architecture and Planning, 3(1), 127–139.



Research Articles