Crisis and resilience in psychology


  • Meltem Narter image/svg+xml Üsküdar University

    Meltem Narter graduated from İstanbul University Faculty of Literature Department of Psychology in 1996. In 2002, she received the title of doctor with doctoral thesis on “Republican Identity of College Youth”; at Institute of Social Sciences of İstanbul University, Psychology Department. In 2002, she received the second prize in the research writing competition titled "Republic through the Eyes of Youth", organized by the Publications Department of the Ministry of Culture, with her research titled "Republican Identity Definitions of University Youth". She completed his work titled "Social Representations of Psychoanalysis in Turkey", supported by Istanbul University Scientific Research Projects Unit, in 2008, and his book of the same name, which she wrote based on this study and published in 2012, was deemed worthy of the 2012 Psychoanalysis Writings achievement award by the Istanbul Psychoanalysis Association. Narter is currently a faculty member of the Department of Psychology at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at Üsküdar University.



earthquake, psychology, resilience


Crises that occur after natural disasters are real and serious issues that can cause serious depression. A crisis is a situation in which a smooth process suddenly turns into a depression with negative, dangerous consequences.  Since our country is in an earthquake-prone region and has experienced earthquakes with great losses, it has a very traumatic history. The concept of crisis, which spreads over a wide area, is a phenomenon that needs to be talked about by drawing boundaries. Natural disasters cause crises, and crises cause trauma. Resilience is the most effective way to deal with natural disasters and the traumas that follow. Resilience can be considered as the ability to adapt to the adverse conditions caused by external factors causing the crisis for disaster management. Psychological resilience is defined as the ability to cope with the negative consequences that may follow a natural disaster and adaptation to a negative situation.  The phenomenon of resilience is important for both the individual and the society in societies where major natural disasters such as earthquakes are experienced. This definition of psychological resilience points to an approach that leaves the individual on his/her own in the face of disaster, crisis, and trauma by placing a great responsibility on the individual. However, individuals who have been exposed to natural disasters should not be left on their own and all opportunities should be mobilised to help them. Passive exposure to the wounds caused by natural disasters decays both the individual and the society. Instead, engaging in emotional, mental, social, and artistic investments and taking part in new and multiple fields will benefit the individual and the society in order to tackle the wounds.


Metrics Loading ...


  • Atak, H., Syed, M., Çok, F & Tonga, Z., (2016). Yeni bir nöropsikolojik kavram olarak tamamlanma ihtiyaci. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar, 8(3), 290-302.
  • Atkinson. A., Martin C. R, & Rankin J., (2009). Resilience revisited, Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 16, 137–145.
  • Bauer, M. & Gaskell G., (1999). Towards a paradigm for research on social representations. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 9, 163–186.
  • Bilgin, N. (2016). Sosyal psikoloji sözlüğü, İstanbul: Bağlam Yayınları, s.406-411.
  • Duveen, G. (2001). Introduction: the power of ideas. In S. Moscovici & G. Duveen (Eds.), Social Representations:Exploration in Social Psychology, New York, New York University Press.
  • Herman, J. (2016). Travma ve iyileşme şiddetin sonuçlari ev içi istismardan siyasi teröre, İstanbul. Literatür Yayınları.
  • İkizer, G., Karancı, A.N., & Doğulu, C. (2016). Exploring Factors Associated with Psychological Resilience Among Earthquake Survivors from Turkey, Journal of Loss and Trauma, Routledge, 21(5), 384–398.
  • Karaırmak, Ö. (2007), Investigation of Personal Qualities Contributing to Psyhological Resilience Among Earthquake Survivors: A Model Testing Study (Doctoral thesis, The Graduate School of Social Sciences of Middle East Technical University, Turkey). Retrieved from
  • Kruglanski, A, & Ajzen, I. (1983). Bias and error in human judgment, European Journal of Social Psychology, 13, 1-44.
  • Kruglanski, Arie. (1990). Lay epistemic theory in social-cognitive psychology, Psychological Inquiry, 1, 181-197.
  • Kundak, S. (2017). Dirençliliğin Temelleri, Dirençlilik Dergisi 1(1), 55-69. doi: 10.32569/resilience.358081.
  • Markovà, I. (2003). Dialogicality and Social Representations the Dynamics of Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Moscovici, S. (1984). The myth of lonely paradigm: a rejoinder, Social Research, 51, (4), pp. 939–968.
  • Moscovici, S. (1988). Notes towards a description of social representations, European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 211-250.
  • Moscovici, S. (2001) Social representations exploration in social psychology, S. Moscovici & G. (Eds.). Social Representations: Exploration in Social Psychology, New York: New York University Press.
  • Moscovici, S. (2008). Psychoanalysis: Its Image and Its Public. OK: Polity Press.
  • Narter, M. (2012). Türkiye’de psikanalizin sosyal temsilleri. İstanbul: Bağlam Yayınları.
  • Narter, M. (2020). “Sosyal Davranışın Eril Psikolojisi.” D. Ü. Arıboğan (Eds.), In Travmaların Gölgesinde Politik Psikoloji, 243-265. İstanbul, İnkılâp Yayınları.
  • Narter, M. (2022). Bitmeyen yas covid-19. In D. Ü. Arıboğan, Meltem Narter (Eds.), Bitmeyen Yas Covid 19 Pandemide Politik Psikoloji Yazıları, İstanbul, İnkılâp Yayınları.
  • Okuyama, J., Funakoshi, S., Tomita, H., Yamaguchi, T. & Matsuoka, H., (2018). Longitudinal characteristics of resilience among adolescents: a high school student cohort study to assess the psychological impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake, Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 72, 821–835. doi:10.1111/pcn.12772.
  • Trip,H., Tabakakis, K., Maskill, V., Richardson, S., Dolan, B., Josland, H., McKay, L., Richardson, A., Cowan, L., Hickmott, B., & Houston, G., (2018). Psychological health and resilience: the impact of significant earthquake events on tertiary level professional students. A cross-sectional study Contemporary Nurse 3, 319–332. doi: 10.1080/10376178.2018.1503549.
  • Wang, L., Shi, Z., Zhang, Y. & Zhang, Z. (2010). Psychometric properties of the 10-item connor–davidson resilience scale in chinese earthquake victims, Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 64, 499–504. doi:10.1111/j.1440-18.
  • Webster, D., & Kruglanski, A. (1997). Cognitive and social consequences of the need for cognitive closure. European Review of Social Psychology 8, 133-173.




How to Cite

Narter, M. (2023). Crisis and resilience in psychology. Journal of Design for Resilience in Architecture and Planning, 4((Special Issue), 109–116.



Resilience in Crisis